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How do I use ibid?

What does ibid mean?


Ibid. is short for a Latin phrase that means, "in the same place," or the same as above. Chicago-style uses ibid. heavily in the notes-bibliography (NB) style or citation, and for a good reason--it makes citing in a paper so much easier!

The first time you write a footnote in Chicago style, it needs to be the long form (you can find help with that on Purdue's Online Writing Lab).

Here's an example of a long note:

1. C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity (New York: HarperOne, 2015), 66.

 

The next time you use this source, you can use the short note:

3. Lewis, 89.

 

Now, ibid. is a special case--if your next footnote is from the *same source and page*, it would look like this:

4. Ibid.

 

If your note was from the same source, but a different page, this is what it would look like:

5. Ibid, 121.

 

So, a full example of your notes would be as follows:

1. C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity (New York: HarperOne, 2015), 66.

2. J. R. R. Tolkien, The Silmarillion (New York: Harper Collins, 2013), 133.

3. Lewis, 89.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid, 121.

6. Tolkien, 47.


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